指的是对应时态下的动词方式,表示现在的事态

诚如未来时。(is /am /are , does /do )

表格

一般时 进行时 完成时 完成进行时
** 现在 ** study
studies
am studying
is studying
are studying
have studied
has studied
have been studying
has been studying
** 过去 ** studied was studying
were studying
had udied had been studying
** 将来 ** shall study
will study
shall be studying
will be studying
shall have studied
will have studied
shall have been studying
will have been studying
** 过去将来 ** should study
would study
should be studying
would be studying
should have studied
would have studied
should have been studying
would have been studying

时态(Tense)是意味着作为、动作和情况在各样时间尺度下的动词格局。因而,当大家说时态结构的时候,指的是呼应时态下的动词方式。

法语时态分为16种:一般以后、一般过去、一般以往、过去现在时,以及那四者的实行时、完毕时和实现进行时。

一.一般现在时 

用法:

  1. 表示现在时有爆发的动作、情状、状态和特点。
  2. 习惯用语。
  3. 平时性、习惯性动作。
  4. 客观事实和普遍真理。尤其要留心,假设前后文不是形似未来时,则无从有限支撑主句、从句时态一致。
  5. 意味着3个按规定、布署或陈设要产生的动作,(仅限于某个表示“来、去、动
    、停、起始、甘休、继续”等的动词 )能够与代表今后时刻的状语搭配使用
    。常见的用法是:飞机、火车、轮船、汽车等时限定点运转的通市场价格势。

例:

  • The next train leaves at 3 o’clock this afternoon.
    (下一趟列车前日中午3点发车。)
  • How often does this shuttle bus run?
    (那班车多短时间一趟?)
  1. 在岁月和规格状语从句里时常用一般未来(有时也用前日完成时)表示未来工作

_
日子状语:
  always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…),
once a week, on Sundays, etc.
  基本组织:①be动词;②表现动词
  否定格局:①am/is/are+not;②此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don’t,如主语为第⑥个人称单数,则用doesn’t,同时还原行为动词。
  一般难题句:①把be动词放于句首;②用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原著为动词。
_

二. 一般过去时

用法:

  1. 代表过去有些时刻发出的动作或情状。
  2. 表示过去习惯性动作。尤其是由would/ used to
    do表达的句型,本人代表的 正是病故时。
    He used to visit his mother once a
    week.(他原先老是每周看望3回她的老母。)

_
时刻状语:
  ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night,
month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago,
once upon a time, etc.
  基本结构:①be动词;②作为动词
  否定格局:①was/were+not;②在作为动词前加didn’t,同时还原行为动词。
  一般难题句:①was或were放于句首;②用助动词do的过去式did提问,同时还原行为动词。
_

三. 现在进行时(be doing)

概念:表示近期或讲话时正值进展的动作及行为。

_ 时间状语:now, at this time, these days, etc.
  基本协会:am/is/are+doing

否定方式:am/is/are+not+doing.

貌似难题句:把be动词放于句首。

四 、过去实行时:

用法:

A) 表示在过去3个相比实际的时日正在爆发的动作。

例:玛丽 was listening to light music 10 minutes
ago.(10分钟前,玛丽正在听轻音乐。)

B) 借使when,
while那样的时间状语指导词所引导的主从句之一是形似过去时,则另一个句子常用过去进行时。

例:I was washing my hair when you knocked at the front
door.(你敲前门时自家正在洗头发。)

时光状语:at this time yesterday, at that
time或以when引导的谓语动词是相似过去时的时刻状语等。

主干结构:was/were+doing

否认方式:was/were + not + doing.

诚如难点句:把was或were放于句首。

⑤ 、未来成功时(have done)

用法:

A) 表示动作到目前终止已经成功或碰巧实现。

B)
表示从过去某时刻起初,持续到今天的动作或状态,并且有只怕会持续一而再下去。此时平时用一而再性动词。时间状语常用since加2个千古的时间点,或for加一段时间,或by加2个现行反革命光阴。

注意事项

前日成功时是关系过去和当今的纽带。今后到位时和千古时的分别在于:现在做到时强调动作的动态,或受动态的熏陶,是动态的结果,对当今有震慑;过去时只表示过去的某部具体时刻里发生的动作,与当今没有关联。

时间状语:recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years, etc.

基本构造:have/has + done

否认方式:have/has + not +d one.

相似问题句:have或has。

六. 身故形成时(had done)

概念:以过去有个别时刻为标准,在此在此以前产生的动作或作为,或在过去某动作从前达成的行为,即“过去的寿终正寝”。

时光状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc.

基本构造:had + done.

否定形式:had + not + done.

貌似难点句:had放于句首

7、一般今后时:

概念:表示将要爆发的动作或存在的情事及打算、安顿或准备做某事。

岁月状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes,
by…,the day after tomorrow, etc.

骨干结构:①am/is/are/going to + do;②will/shall + do.

3、be to do ④ be about to 5、一般今后时表今后 ⑥ 、未来展开时表现在。

否定方式:①was/were + not; ②在表现动词前加didn’t,同时还原行为动词。

貌似难题句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。

分级用法:

A) 基本组织是will / shall do。

例:We shall send her a glass hand-made craft as her birthday gift.

B) 某些动词,如:arrive, be close, come, do, done, go, have, leave,
open, play, return, sleep, start,
stay等,用于未来实行时,并且普通与一个意味现在时间的日子状语连用,可以象征以后时。

例:My mother is coming to visit me next week and is staying here until
May.(作者母亲下一周以往看自身,并会呆到1十月。)

C) 表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用be going to do。

例:This is just what I am going to say.(那便是笔者想说的。)

D) 表示“即将、正要”时,可用be about to do。强调近期内或立刻要做的事。

例:Don’t worry, I am about to make a close examination on you.

E) “be to do” 表示“按安排、陈设即将产生某事或打算做某事”。

F) 同样能够代表“正要、将要”的趣味的句型是be on the point of doing。

例:The coach is on the point of giving up the game because our team has
been scored 7 points.   例:二零零五年3月大学四级第六5题

I was _______ the point of telephoning him when his letter
arrived.

A) in   B) to   C) at   D) on

答案是D)。on the point of doing
是一直词组,意思是“正要、打算”。全句的情趣是:“当她的信到的时候自身正要打电话给他。”

注意事项:

在以if, when, as long as, as soon as, after, before, in case, until,
unless等连词以及有着连词功能的副词(immediately, the moment,
directly)等引导的状语从句,一般用今日时期替以后时。强调可持续性或动态时,可用达成时。

例:I hope his health will have improved by the time you come back next
year.(小编期待到前年您回去的时候,他的人身已经好多了。)

八 、过去未来时:

概念:立足于过去某一时半刻时,从过去看以往,常用于宾语从句中。

时光状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.

主导组织:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do.

否认格局:①was/were/not + going to + do;②would/should + not + do.

诚如难题句:①was或were放于句首;②would/should提到句首。

例 I said on Thursday I should see my friend the next
day.(作者周三说作者将于第3天拜访作者的恋人。)

九 以往完毕实行时(have been doing)

用法:表示某一动作开首于过去某一时间,一而再或再一次地出现于今,或将再三再四持续至以往。

例:We have been working on this project for over a month
now.(到近年来截止,我们直接在拍卖格外项目,已经花了叁个多月时间了。)

注意事项:与现时成功时对待,今后到位举行时更强调:在从过去到现行反革命的时日里,动作或状态平素不停或直接反复现身。

10、 今后达成时(will have done)

用法:表示从现在的某权且间开端、延续到另八个以往光阴的动作或状态,或是产生在某些以后岁月,但对未来的另1个今后时间有影响的动作或状态。就好象把今日完毕时平移到时间轴的先天时时段一样。其用法从和过去及今后关于,变成了和现在及今后的今日有关。

例 The conference __________ a full week by the time it ends.

A) must have lasted   B) will have lasted C) would last     D) has
lasted

以下多样时态考察较少

十一. 将来进行时(will be doing)

用法:强调在前些天的有个别具体时间正在发生的动作或作业。

例:Don’t worry, you won’t miss her. She will be wearing a red T-shirt
and a white skirt at that
time.(别担心,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件浅莲红的半袖衫和一条葡萄紫的公主裙。)

注意事项:由于本时态是由以后时和进行时融合在一道的,所以有关本时态的注意事项,可参考”一般未来时”和”以后实行时”的关于注意事项。

十贰 、今后到位实行时:shall have been doing ,will have been doing

例:By the end of next month, the project will have been being worked
for 3 years.
(到下个月初截止,那项工程就早已不停地拓展了3年了。)(被动语态)

十三 、过去做到举办时:had been doing

例:The old clock had been being taken apart of and fixed up again for
several times by my 10-year old son before I came back
home.(小编回到家在此之前,小编8周岁大的孙子已经把那个旧钟表拆卸并再次组建了一点回了。)(此处强调“拆卸”和“组装”那五个三长两短的寿终正寝的动作从来在屡次实行。)(被动语态)

十④ 、过去未来举办时:should be doing , would be doing

例:The government promised that a new highway would be being built next
July.(政党承诺说第1年7月将有一条新的高速公路正在修建。)(此句的日子状语是实际的前几日岁月,所以最好用将来进行时。)(此句为被动语态)

十⑤ 、 过去以后做到时:should have done , would have done

例:I believed by the end of that year an advanced version of that
software would have been developed, but I was
wrong.(小编坚信到这年岁暮得了,那两个软件的新本子将被开发出来。可是笔者错了。)(此句为被动语态)

十陆 、 过去以后到位进行时:should have been doing , would have been
doing

例:They said that by the end of the following month, the project would
have been being worked for 3 years.
(他们说到第四个月初停止,这项工程就曾经不停地举行了3年了。)

代表以后的处境,状态或特色。

她很开心=he is very happy

1.意味常常性习惯性动作。

他隔三差五去逛街=he often goes shopping

2.客观事实和普遍真理。

阳光从东方升起= the sun rises from east

3.意味按规定安排或布署要发出的动作。

时常用在飞机,轮船,轮船,火车,小车等通市场价格势上。

下一趟飞机在今日清晨3点起航=the next flight takes off at 3pm

4.在时刻标准后,妥洽状语从句中用一般现在时来代表今后的工作。

本人一到家就给您通话=i will call you when i gets home

现在进行时。(am/is /are doing )

1.象征未来正值爆发的事务。

他今后正在看电视=he is watching tv now

2.代表如今一段时间一直在做的业务,但不自然代表现在就在做。

本人那些月以来一贯在攻读弹钢琴= i am learning to play piano this month

现行反革命完结时。(has/have done )

1.象征动作到后天了却,刚刚形成也许曾经成功,强调对以往发生的震慑。

自个儿买了二个新车,可是还尚未卖掉旧的车,所以作者前几天有多少个车= I have bought
a new car , but haven’t sold the old one , so i have two cars now

2.代表从过去某多少个点发轫,持续到现行反革命的动作可能情形,并且丰裕有大概会继续不断下去。

西班牙语一向是笔者的兴趣爱好=English has been my passion

当今成功进行时。(has/ have been doing )

意味着某一动作从过去启幕不断或另行的产出到明天依然将连续不断到以往。

到近年来终止,大家直接在拍卖万分项目,已经花了2个多月= we have been
working on this project for a month

相似过去时。( did , was /were)

1.意味着过去有个别时间产生的动作或意况。

自己前些天手提式有线电话机被偷了=my phone was stolen yesterday

2.表示过去习惯性的动作。

当自家要么1个小女孩的时候,我平时买书看=when i was a little girl , i
always bought books to read

3.千古时时做某事。

自家过去隔三差五去钓鱼=i used to go fishing

千古到位时。( had done )

意味着在过去的某部时刻或动作已经产生的动作,已经存在的场合,指过去的死亡。

到那多少个时候停止,他家里一度有半年没有得到他的音讯了= until then , his
family hadn’t heard from him for 6 months

过去以往时。( would do )

意味着从过去的有些时间看未来要产生的事。

本人礼拜二说,笔者会在星期五的时候去游泳= I said on Monday that i would go
swimming on tuesday

千古举行时。( was / were doing )

1.象征过去具体的年月正在爆发的动作。

半个小时以前,笔者正在洗澡= i was taking a shower about half an hour ago

2.意味着某些时刻段直接在发生的作业。

2018年夏季,作者在打工= i was doing a part time job last summer

一般以后时。( will do)

1.表示主语,主观意愿的明日。

小编会送给他一本书,作为他的圣诞节红包=i will give him a book for
christmas gift

2.代表客观现在

鱼离开水了会死= fish will die if it leaves water

3.一时决定。

作者会去看她= i will go and visit him

4.意味方今内可能马上要做的事务。

绝不担心,作者及时给您做3回精心的检查= dont worry , i will do a full
check on you immediately

明代举行时。(will have done )

代表在以后的某部时刻正在发生的工作。

您不会认不出他的,他会穿一件卡其色的马夹=

前几天完毕时。(will have been doing )

代表在未来的某2个岁月开头,一而再到另2个今后日子的动作或境况。

议会从开头到截止,将不断整个2个星期。

后天到位实行时。(had been doing )

意味着动作从某一时间初始,一向继承到今后某最近间。

千古落成进行时,表示某一动作平昔持续到千古某一时间。( would be doing )

过去今后举办时表示就过去某最近间而言,以往某目前间或时刻段正在进行的动作。

千古现在成功时。(would have done , should have done )

意味着就过去某一段时间而言,现在某暂且间。所形成的动作常用在虚拟语气中,表示与过去事实相反。

千古现在到位进行时。(would have been doing , should have been doing)

代表就过去某近年来间而言,今后某一时半刻刻以前一直在进展的动作。

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